Document Type : Review
Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
Nutritional Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
Background and objective: Iron deficiency is a global health concern. Fortification of foods with iron is a common strategy to solve the nutritional issue. However, traditional iron fortification methods lead to some challenges with regard to stability and bioavailability of the element. Therefore, finding alternative approaches have been developed. One approach is use of iron-chelating peptides derived from milk proteins. They have attracted a lot of interests in the scientific community due to their potential to enhance iron absorption and bioavailability. This article provides a review on iron-chelating peptides and hydrolysates derived from halal milks, shedding light on their underlying principles in iron complexation and the key binding sites involved.
Results and conclusion: The significance of iron-chelating peptides lies in their ability to address the critical issue of dietary iron deficiency. Halal milks’ protein-iron complex offer several advantages such as superior bioavailability, minimal impact on taste, and excellent solubility. These characteristics introduce them as promising strategy in iron fortification of halal foods. These complexes are formed through specific chemical interactions between iron and the breakdown products of milk proteins, including hydrolysates or peptides, derived from both whey protein and casein. Several factors affect the efficacy of iron binding including pH, ionic strength, concentration of peptides to reach ideal ratio, temperature and time, appropriate enzyme (which impacts on the peptide characteristic), and potential interaction with other molecules. This multifaceted approach to enhance the iron fortification effectiveness underscores the importance of a deeper understanding of the intricate interplay between these factors in development of iron-fortified foods.