Microbial contamination of the bread samples sold in Nigeria

Document Type : Original


1 Department of Microbiology, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Mountain Top University, Ibafo, Makogi oba, Ogun state, Nigeria.

3 Department of Therapeutics and Propaedeutics, Faculty of General Medicine, Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk, Russian Federation.


Background and objective: Bakery products are of cereal group and considered as valuable nutritional source in human diet. They provide most of our daily calories. Development of bakeries’ establishment is related to local financial capacity and processing techniques. It has led to different types of bread in term of their quality and hygienic status. Same as other countries, bread is staple food in Nigeria. In this study, we aimed to determine microbial contamination of the bread samples prepared and distributed in Wukari, a local government area in Taraba State, Nigeria.
Materials and methods: In this study, two types of bread were purchased from five different places in Wukari metropolis. Two retail bakeries were selected for sampling in each place. Analysis was done in microbiology laboratory of the Federal University Wukari. The samples were studied for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, other Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Streptomyces spp., Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger contamination to investigate the quality of practices during production and distribution.
Results and conclusion: Microbial contamination of the bread samples was included to Bacillus subtilis 22.5%, Aspergillus flavus 20%, Aspergillus niger 17.5%, Streptomyces spp. 12.5%, Streptococcus spp. 12.5%, Staphylococcus aureus 7.5%, and other Staphylococcus spp. 7.5%. Our investigation revealed that a variety of bacteria and fungi species were present in the bread samples produced and distributed in Wukari, that make the products susceptible to rapid deterioration, and may lead to organoleptic changes and economic loss. Apparently, there is a need for strict surveillance and monitoring in the retail bakeries located in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.


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