Lipid profile and health attributes of mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed kernel and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut kernel: A comparative study

Document Type : Original


1 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lafia, P.M.B. 146, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

2 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lafia, P.M.B. 146, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.; Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Wukari, P.M.B. 1020, Taraba State, Nigeria.

3 Department of Food Science and Technology, Mountain Top University, Magoki, Ogun State, Nigeria.

4 Department of Microbiology, Federal University Wukari, P.M.B. 1020, Taraba State, Nigeria.; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nigeria.


Background and objective: Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) are tropical trees widely cultivated in Nigeria. They are rich in lipid but their functionality has not been studied well. In this study, we investigated lipid composition of both mango seed and cashew nut kernels.
Materials and methods: Fresh mature and disease-free mango seed and cashew nut were collected from farms of Agyaragu in Nasarawa state (Nigeria) in April 2020. Kernel of the samples was separated and their oil were extracted by Soxhlet method for analysis. Profile of fatty acids, phospholipids, and sterols were determined by gas chromatography in the laboratory. To evaluate the health attributes, amounts of saturated fats, unsaturated fats, essential fatty acids, and ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats were calculated.
Results and conclusion: In mango seed kernel, palmitic (23.83%), linoleic (23.18%), and oleic (19.85%) acids had the most concentration. In comparison, linoleic (57.21%), oleic (25.30%), and palmitic (5.73%) acids were the abundant fatty acids in cashew nut kernel. Caprylic, capric, and lauric acids were determined in mango seed kernel, but they were not detected in cashew nut kernel. Margaric, arachidic, behenic, palmitoleic, arachidonic, and erucic were present in small quantities in both samples (less than 1%). Total amount of essential fatty acids in cashew nut kernel (62.42%) was much higher than that of mango seed kernel (31.9%). In addition, a higher ratio of polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids, that is strongly associated with human health, was determined in cashew nut kernel (6.11 vs. 0.74). However, mango seed kernel was rich in phospholipids especially phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol, which have significant role in cellular vital processes such as membrane fusion, cell circles, autophagy, and apoptosis. High concentration of phytosterol in cashew nut kernel (295.69 mg/100 g) compared to mango seed kernel (51.18 mg/100 g) was also of importance. Accordingly, we concluded that both oils have a potential for consumption in foods and cosmetics, and animal feeding.


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