Validated analytical method for characterization of alcohols marketed in Tehran, Iran

Document Type: Original

Authors

1 Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Food and Drug Administration, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Drug and Food Control Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Food and Drug Administration, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5 Pharmaceutical Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

6 Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Drug and Food Control Food and Drug Administration, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Drug and Food Control Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Background and objective: Various types of alcohol for severalapplications are available worldwide, of which, disinfection is one of the most important. In Muslim nations, consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited even at low quantities in accordance to halal status. Therefore, denatonium benzoate (commercially known as Bitrex) that has sharp bitterness is added to alcohol to avoid its edible usage. In this regard, at least 10 mg l-1 of denatonium benzoate is added to industrial alcohol according to Iranian Ministry of Health regulation. In our study, we examined the concentration of denatonium benzoate and also purity of alcohol samples collected from capital city of Iran (Tehran).
Materials and methods: In total, 62 samples of alcohol were collected and analyzed by HPLC for Bitrex and alcoholmeter for purity. For HPLC, C18 column (150×4.6 mm, 5 µm) as stationary phase and phosphate buffer/acetonitrile solution containing sodium lauryl sulfate (50:50 v v-1) as mobile phase with flow rate of 1.2 ml min-1 were used.
Results and conclusion: The results revealed that some companies (41 samples out of 62) did not use denatonium benzoate in their products and used fruit essences instead to improve the taste and smell of alcohol. These results were against the force of Ministry of Health in mandatory addition of denatonium benzoate to prevent the samples’ further abuse. In addition, purity of most alcohols was not compatible to the information provided by the labels. We concluded that more restriction and supervision is required to prevent adulteration.

Keywords

Main Subjects